In this video Paul Andersen explains in more detail the history of the Earth. He shows how the history of the Earth is written in the rocks that are built up over time. Fossils allow us to compare different rock layers relative to one another and the absolute radiometric dating allows scientists to identify the specific age of individual rocks.
Paul Andersen explains patterns and describes why pattern recognition is an important skill in science and engineering. He begins by discussing patterns in nature, including snowflakes, flower petals, seasons and nucleotides in DNA. He then illustrates the importance of classification in describing and eventually understanding patterns. He gives a progression instruction in the science classroom from grade K to 12. A secret pattern is hidden within the video.
Paul Andersen explains how scientists modify theories by constructing explanations. He also discusses the cycle of design used by engineers to solve problems. He starts by defining a theory as a well-established explanation of a phenomenon that is refined over time. Examples discussed in the video include the big bang theory, the germ theory and the theory of natural selection. He also lays out a progression for building this skill in students.