ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions


In this video Paul Andersen explains how many possible solutions are developed in the design process.  As many solutions to the problem are identified using a brainstorming process.  These solutions are compared to the specific constraints and criteria of the solution.  Models are created to test the viability of each solution.  A K-12 teaching progression is also included.

ESS3.B: Natural Hazards


In this video Paul Andersen explains how natural disasters (like earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes and flooding) have affected and will continue to affect humans on the planet.  Many of the natural hazards (like volcanoes and storms) can be studies directly and some (like earthquakes) can be predicted.  Natural hazards will never go away but the damage can be limited.  A K-12 teaching progression is also included.

CCC2: Cause and Effect


In this video Paul Andersen explains cause and effect its importance in science and engineering.  He starts by addressing the chain of interactions that must be present to show cause and effect.  He addresses the assumptions of universality and scale in determining cause and effect.  He finished the video with a progression of instruction from K-12.

SEP6: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions


Paul Andersen explains how scientists modify theories by constructing explanations.  He also discusses the cycle of design used by engineers to solve problems.  He starts by defining a theory as a well-established explanation of a phenomenon that is refined over time.  Examples discussed in the video include the big bang theory, the germ theory and the theory of natural selection.  He also lays out a progression for building this skill in students.