In this video Paul Andersen explains how engineers optimize the design solution. After a number of solutions have been identified engineers will test each of them against a given set of criteria. They will trade-off different phenomenon to arrive at a best solution. An example of this trade-off process was used in the creation of the Apollo 11 lunar module. A K-12 teaching progression is also included.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how humans use information technology and instrumentation to better understand their surrounds. Technologies (including X-rays, computers, and phones) use electromagnetic waves to improve the lives of humans. A teaching progression K-12 is also included.
Paul Andersen explains patterns and describes why pattern recognition is an important skill in science and engineering. He begins by discussing patterns in nature, including snowflakes, flower petals, seasons and nucleotides in DNA. He then illustrates the importance of classification in describing and eventually understanding patterns. He gives a progression instruction in the science classroom from grade K to 12. A secret pattern is hidden within the video.
Paul Andersen explains how scientists modify theories by constructing explanations. He also discusses the cycle of design used by engineers to solve problems. He starts by defining a theory as a well-established explanation of a phenomenon that is refined over time. Examples discussed in the video include the big bang theory, the germ theory and the theory of natural selection. He also lays out a progression for building this skill in students.