In this video Paul Andersen explains how plate tectonics explains the large-scale system interactions on our planet. Large plates float on the mantle and interact to form the major landforms on the planet. Evidence for plate tectonics include the location of earthquakes, the reversed polarity of newly formed oceanic crust and the warping of crust by large bodies like glaciers and lakes. A K-12 teaching progression is also included.
In this video Paul Andersen describes the four major spheres on planet Earth. The geosphere makes up the mass of the planet and includes the major landforms. The hydrosphere is all of the water and the atmosphere is all of the gases. The biosphere exists where the others spheres interface. A K-12 teaching progression is also included.
Paul Andersen explains how stability and change are regulated in systems through controls and feedback. Controls are used to regulate matter and energy flowing into a system. Feedback mechanisms within the system are used to regulate stability. Negative feedback loops keep the values around a set point and positive feedback loops move them away. Disequilibrium can result in death of living systems and destruction of physical systems. A progression of instruction for K-12 students is also included.
Paul Andersen explains the importance of modeling in science and engineering. Models are used by scientists to explain phenomenon. Unlike mental models, conceptual models can be shared by all scientists to improve our understanding of the Universe. Engineers use models study systems and test designs.