ESS2.D: Weather and Climate


In this video Paul Andersen describes both weather and climate.  Weather is the day-to-day conditions on the Earth's surface, including temperature, wind, humidity, air pressure, and precipitation.  Climate are the long term conditions on the Earth's surface.  Both climate and weather are determined by sunlight, water, landforms and life forms.  A K-12 teaching progression is also included.

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems


In this video Paul Andersen describes the four major spheres on planet Earth.  The geosphere makes up the mass of the planet and includes the major landforms.  The hydrosphere is all of the water and the atmosphere is all of the gases.  The biosphere exists where the others spheres interface.  A K-12 teaching progression is also included.

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System


In this video Paul Andersen explains the parts of the Solar System; including the planets, dwarf planets, moons and asteroids.  He explains how everything orbits around the Sun and how a proper understanding of this heliocentric model helps to explain planetary motions, eclipses, seasons, phases and even day and night.  A teaching progression K-12 is also included.

CCC2: Cause and Effect


In this video Paul Andersen explains cause and effect its importance in science and engineering.  He starts by addressing the chain of interactions that must be present to show cause and effect.  He addresses the assumptions of universality and scale in determining cause and effect.  He finished the video with a progression of instruction from K-12.

SEP2: Developing and Using Models

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Paul Andersen explains the importance of modeling in science and engineering.  Models are used by scientists to explain phenomenon.  Unlike mental models, conceptual models can be shared by all scientists to improve our understanding of the Universe.  Engineers use models study systems and test designs.