HS-PS2-3

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

 
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In this video Paul Andersen explains how engineers optimize the design solution.  After a number of solutions have been identified engineers will test each of them against a given set of criteria.  They will trade-off different phenomenon to arrive at a best solution.  An example of this trade-off process was used in the creation of the Apollo 11 lunar module.  A K-12 teaching progression is also included.

ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems

 
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In this video Paul Andersen explains the first step in the design process, defining and delimiting the engineering problem.  Design requires a clear definition of the problem and this is done by addressing both the constraints and criteria of each solution.  This will become increasingly important as future problems require complex solutions.  A K-12 teaching progression is also included.

CCC2: Cause and Effect

 

In this video Paul Andersen explains cause and effect its importance in science and engineering.  He starts by addressing the chain of interactions that must be present to show cause and effect.  He addresses the assumptions of universality and scale in determining cause and effect.  He finished the video with a progression of instruction from K-12.
 

SEP6: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

 

Paul Andersen explains how scientists modify theories by constructing explanations.  He also discusses the cycle of design used by engineers to solve problems.  He starts by defining a theory as a well-established explanation of a phenomenon that is refined over time.  Examples discussed in the video include the big bang theory, the germ theory and the theory of natural selection.  He also lays out a progression for building this skill in students.