In this video Paul Andersen explains in more detail the history of the Earth. He shows how the history of the Earth is written in the rocks that are built up over time. Fossils allow us to compare different rock layers relative to one another and the absolute radiometric dating allows scientists to identify the specific age of individual rocks.
In this video Paul Andersen explains the importance of scale in science and engineering. The Universe varies in size along three scales: size, timespan, and energy. Many phenomenon are too small and fast, or two large and slow to observe. We use the tools of proportion and units of measure to comprehend different scales. The video ends with a progression of instruction from K-12
Paul Andersen explains how scientists modify theories by constructing explanations. He also discusses the cycle of design used by engineers to solve problems. He starts by defining a theory as a well-established explanation of a phenomenon that is refined over time. Examples discussed in the video include the big bang theory, the germ theory and the theory of natural selection. He also lays out a progression for building this skill in students.