ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes


In this video Paul Andersen explains the vital role that water plays in the processes on the Earth's surface.  Water has several unique properties including high heat capacity, transparency, polarity and the ability to change the chemical behavior of the mantle.  The Earth is largely a water planet but most of the water is found in the oceans or locked in ice.  Water is a powerful erosive force on the planet.  A K-12 teaching progression is also included.

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems


In this video Paul Andersen describes the four major spheres on planet Earth.  The geosphere makes up the mass of the planet and includes the major landforms.  The hydrosphere is all of the water and the atmosphere is all of the gases.  The biosphere exists where the others spheres interface.  A K-12 teaching progression is also included.

CCC3: Scale, Proportion, and Quantity


In this video Paul Andersen explains the importance of scale in science and engineering.  The Universe varies in size along three scales: size, timespan, and energy.  Many phenomenon are too small and fast, or two large and slow to observe.  We use the tools of proportion and units of measure to comprehend different scales.  The video ends with a progression of instruction from K-12

SEP6: Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions


Paul Andersen explains how scientists modify theories by constructing explanations.  He also discusses the cycle of design used by engineers to solve problems.  He starts by defining a theory as a well-established explanation of a phenomenon that is refined over time.  Examples discussed in the video include the big bang theory, the germ theory and the theory of natural selection.  He also lays out a progression for building this skill in students.