In this video Paul Andersen describes both weather and climate. Weather is the day-to-day conditions on the Earth's surface, including temperature, wind, humidity, air pressure, and precipitation. Climate are the long term conditions on the Earth's surface. Both climate and weather are determined by sunlight, water, landforms and life forms. A K-12 teaching progression is also included.
In this video Paul Andersen explains the vital role that water plays in the processes on the Earth's surface. Water has several unique properties including high heat capacity, transparency, polarity and the ability to change the chemical behavior of the mantle. The Earth is largely a water planet but most of the water is found in the oceans or locked in ice. Water is a powerful erosive force on the planet. A K-12 teaching progression is also included.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how systems can be used to understand phenomenon in science and create better designs in engineering. He starts by defining the characteristics of a system and describes how system models can be used to better understand the world. For example a system model of the water cycle can show the cycling of matter on the surface of the Earth. He ends with a progression of instruction for a K-12 science classroom.
Paul Andersen explains the importance of modeling in science and engineering. Models are used by scientists to explain phenomenon. Unlike mental models, conceptual models can be shared by all scientists to improve our understanding of the Universe. Engineers use models study systems and test designs.