In this video Paul Andersen explains how engineers optimize the design solution. After a number of solutions have been identified engineers will test each of them against a given set of criteria. They will trade-off different phenomenon to arrive at a best solution. An example of this trade-off process was used in the creation of the Apollo 11 lunar module. A K-12 teaching progression is also included.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how chemical reactions progress as bonds are broken and reformed reformed. He explains the difference between changes in state and changes in molecules. He discussed collision theory and explains why increases in temperature and concentration can increase reaction rates. He also discusses the conservation of matter in chemical reactions. The video also contains a teaching progression for chemical reactions from grades K-12.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how many possible solutions are developed in the design process. As many solutions to the problem are identified using a brainstorming process. These solutions are compared to the specific constraints and criteria of the solution. Models are created to test the viability of each solution. A K-12 teaching progression is also included.
In this video Paul Andersen explains how matter and energy flow and cycle through systems. He starts by explaining how energy and matter input and output will always be conserved. He addresses the many misconceptions surround energy and matter including the belief that food contains energy. He explains how nuclear reactions conserve both batter and energy. The video ends with a teaching progression for grades K-12.
Paul Andersen explains how scientists modify theories by constructing explanations. He also discusses the cycle of design used by engineers to solve problems. He starts by defining a theory as a well-established explanation of a phenomenon that is refined over time. Examples discussed in the video include the big bang theory, the germ theory and the theory of natural selection. He also lays out a progression for building this skill in students.