HS-LS3-3: Variation and Distribution of Traits

Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population. (Scale, Proportion, and Quantity)

Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the use of mathematics to describe the probability of traits as it relates to genetic and environmental factors in the expression of traits.

Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Hardy-Weinberg calculations.

Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity


The following assessments were created by science teachers hoping to better understand the NGSS. In most cases teachers went from standard to assessment in around an hour.  These are drafts and should be used accordingly. Feel free to improve these assessments or contribute to the collection. Learn more about assessment design here.




Gene expression
 - Frequency
 - Distribution
 - Variation
Expression factors
 - Environmental
 - Genetic
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity


Learning Plans


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